Introduction: The global prevalence and mortality of diabetes mellitus worldwide is steadily increasing, and its increases are faster in low and middle income countries. In Senegal, diabetes mellitus affects 2.1% of the population and is responsible for 3% of deaths from all causes. However, the epidemiological profile of the patients received in the emergency unit is not clearly established. This is how this study was conducted to find out the frequency of diabetes mellitus and the factors associated within the emergency unit of Dakar hospitals. Methodology: The study setting was for the emergency unit of Pikines Hospital and The Principal Hospital of Dakar. This was an observational, descriptive cross sectional study for analytical purposes looking for factors associated with the onset of diabetes. A representative sample was drawn and a consecutive recruitment of eligible patients was carried out. The data collection tools were based on the WHO stepwise survey questionnaire and the data collection was conducted in an ethical manner. Results: It was 615 patients who were included, of which 53.7% at The Principal Hospital of Dakar and 46.3% at the Pikine’s Hospital. This was 72.4% of those surveyed who did not engage in sufficient physical activity and only 3.6% reported consuming more than five fruits and vegetables per day. They were 22.7% to be overweight and 17.4% were obese. The patients who reported never having controlled their glycemia in their life were 40.4%. Among the patients who had measured their glycemia at least once in their life, 69.7% did so in a health facility, before resorting to the pharmacy and self-measurement. The frequency of diabetes mellitus was 16.9% of which 77% were previously diagnosed diabetes mellitus cases and 23% were newly diagnosed. The mean random capillary glycemia was 1.34 g/L with a standard deviation of 0.7 g/L. In decreasing order of frequency of metabolic complication diagnosed there was hyperglycaemic hyperosmolarity (48.8%) followed by diabetic ketoacidosis (39.5%). The risk factors identified for the onset of diabetes mellitus in the emergency’s unit population were age, existence of employment and body mass index. Conclusion: The risk factors for diabetes mellitus are well represented in our emergency units. The fight for primary prevention of diabetes mellitus remains a multi-ministerial challenge, as suggested by the associated factors identified in this study. All strategic plans for the fight against diabetes mellitus and non-communicable diseases in general must be built according to the One Health vision.
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